Boiled down to one word research is tedious. You must be pretty patient in order to achieve any results from this because you have to sift through loads of information on the internet, which is anything but fast. Search engines are the best places to start especially google. You first want to look up what you are interested in on Wikipedia. Despite rumors that the information isn't very accurate it provides a great base for learning about a new topic but you should just find additional sources that back this information up. You then want to be way more specific and narrow down on what you specifically want to do and look at scientific journal articles since they describe background, procedures, and materials that were used in the experiment.
One thing is for sure you cannot solve any question without at least some research but most things require a lot of research. If you don't know something you would have to have a PhD in that area in order to design a correct experimental design to find the answer to your question, but you probably don't so just look it up.
Research is the single most important thing in doing any type of science experiment because if you don't know anything you could easily hurt yourself or others when doing the experiment. Before you start you really don't need to know anything about your topic you just need something to search for. You first get a base in your topic from Wikipedia and then go on to more advanced and specific searches.
Researching and gathering information is what helps you design your experiment and interpret your results. If you don't understand what it is saying in an journal article you just have to email the college professor who wrote the paper and be very polite and nice in the email and they will usually explain it to you (at least that is from my experiences).
The topics that I was researching had to do with the viability of my innovation working and also some background information on my innovation such as chemistry, colloidal chemistry, biology, and things that would create a strong basic understanding of the science behind my innovation. I then became more specific and started looking in journals about specific procedures about how I could make and test my innovation.
This is basically all researching science is all about.